Climate change mitigation through solid waste management

The vast majority of solid waste management (SWM) projects implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a sanitary landfill. Mostly this leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the given situation. With the implementation of advanced SWM systems DETC could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10 - 15%. The paper discusses the possibilities how financial sustainability of advanced SWM systems could be safeguarded in DETC. It is part of a doctoral thesis recently finalized at the University of Rostock / Germany.

Methods and Data Based on experiences of international development cooperation, model calculations on cost and potential revenues have been carried out. Material, energy and greenhouse gas balances have been calculated for 16 different - more or less - advanced SWM concepts, taking eight standardized waste compositions and properties as a basis. The waste types were derived from typical waste characteristics of different regions, categorized and related to the GDP. Due to missing experience in DETC notional cost calculations for different advanced SWM technologies were conducted. Based on cost structure analyses the influences of local frame conditions were assessed and the ‘theoretical’ full cost calculated. Results Around 70 - 80% of the total costs are operating cost. Hence the provision of low-interest credits or even grants alone can not secure financial sustainability of advanced SWM systems in DETC. Financial sustainability requires steady and reliable revenues. Charging full cost covering user fees, faces serious restrictions in DETC. Revenues for recyclable materials or energy-from-waste could cover between 20 - 30% of the total system costs, depending on waste composition and recycling market conditions, whereas financial compensations for greenhouse gas reduction effects of advanced SWM could - depending on SWM concept and frame conditions - cover between 30% and 50% of the total system cost. Thus the appropriate remuneration of the greenhouse gas reduction efforts turns out as the crucial question for guaranteeing financial sustainability of advanced SWM in DETC. Conclusions and Findings To the extent industrialized countries meet their commitments given in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto-Protocol and other international agreements on climate change, DETC with a GDP of about more than 2.000 €/cap/year could afford advanced SWM systems. Besides that DETC have to be supported in a holistic approach with technology transfer, capacity building and the development of conducive framework conditions in order to develop their own technological competence in the long run.



Copyright: © European Compost Network ECN e.V.
Quelle: Orbit 2014 (Juni 2014)
Seiten: 0
Preis: € 0,00
Autor: Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
 
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