Climate Protection - opportunity to ensure financial sustainability of solid waste management in developing countries

The vast majority of solid waste management (SWM) projects implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a sanitary landfill. This approach leads in most cases to an increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By implementing advanced SWM systems DETC could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10-15%.

The paper discusses the possibilities how financial sustainability of advanced SWM systems could be ensured in DETC. It is part of a doctoral thesis recently finalized at the University of Rostock/Germany. Based on experiences of international development cooperation projects, model calculations on cost and potential revenues have been carried out. Material, energy and greenhouse gas balances have been calculated for 16 different - more or less - advanced SWM concepts, taking eight standardised waste compositions and properties as a basis. The waste types were derived from typical waste characteristics of different regions, categorized and related to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Due to missing experience in DETC notional cost calculations for different advanced SWM technologies were conducted. Based on cost structure analyses the influences of local frame conditions were assessed and the ‘theoretical’ full cost calculated. Around 60 - 70% of the total costs are operating cost. Hence the provision of low-interest credits or even grants alone can not ensure financial sustainability. SWM requires steady and reliable revenues. Full cost covering user fees face serious restrictions in DETC. Revenues for recyclable materials or energy-from-waste could cover between 20 - 30% of the total system costs, depending on waste composition and recycling market conditions. Financial compensations for greenhouse gas reduction effects of advanced SWM could - depending on SWM concept and frame conditions - cover between 30% and 50% of the total system costs. Thus the appropriate remuneration of the greenhouse gas reduction efforts turns out as the crucial question for ensuring financial sustainability of advanced SWM in DETC. To the extent industrialised countries meet their commitments given in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto-Protocol and other international agreements on climate change, DETC with a GDP of about more than 2.000 €/cap/year could afford advanced SWM systems. Besides that DETC have to be supported in a holistic approach with technology transfer, capacity building and the development of conducive framework conditions in order to develop their
own technological competence in the long run.



Copyright: © Eigenbeiträge der Autoren
Quelle: Jahrgang 2013 (Dezember 2013)
Seiten: 10
Preis: € 0,00
Autor: Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Pfaff-Simoneit
Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
 
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